Over-Pronation Of The Foot Cause And Treatment

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Overview

Over-pronation refers to pronation occurring at the wrong time in the gait cycle. Just before the foot pushes off, it should become a rigid lever as the arch rises and the ankle straightens. If instead, the arch remains flattened and the ankle remains turned inward, muscles and tendons will be stressed and the foot will undergo excessive wear and tear. This can cause the foot bones to shift position, which results in additional stress of the bones and joints above the pronated foot. Over time, it is this stress that causes pain in the knees, ankles, feet and back.Pronation

Causes

Abnormal foot biomechanics usually causes over-use type injuries, occurring most frequently in runners. When a neutral foot pronates during walking or running, the lower leg, knee and thigh all rotate internally (medially). When an athlete with an overpronated foot runs, this rotation movement is exaggerated and becomes more marked.

Symptoms

Not all foot injuries affecting runners are necessarily down to a particular running gait; it is rarely that simple to diagnose how a foot problem developed . Simply being an overpronator does not mean that a foot injury has been caused by the running gait and it could be due to a number of factors. However mild to severe overpronators tend to be at a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal problems due to the increased stresses and strains which are placed on the body when the foot does not move in an optimum manner. The following injuries are frequently due to overpronation of the feet. Tarsal tunnel syndrome. Shin splints. Anterior compartment syndrome. Plantar fasciitis. Achilles tendonitis. Bunions. Sesamoiditis. Stress fractures. Back and hip pain. Ankle pain.

Diagnosis

Pronounced wear on the instep side of shoe heels can indicate overpronation, however it's best to get an accurate assessment. Footbalance retailers offer a free foot analysis to check for overpronation and help you learn more about your feet.Over-Pronation

Non Surgical Treatment

If a young child is diagnosed with overpronation braces and custom orthotics can be, conjunction with strengthening and stretching exercises, to realign the bones of the foot. These treatments may have to continue until the child has stopped growing, and orthotics may need to be worn for life in order to prevent the foot reverting to an overpronated state. Wearing shoes that properly support the foot, particularly the arch, is one of the most effective treatments for overpronation. Custom-made orthotic inserts can also be very beneficial. They too support the arch and distribute body weight correctly throughout the foot. Motion-control shoes that prohibit pronation can be worn, so may be useful for those with severe overpronation. One good treatment is to walk barefoot as often as possible. Not relying on shoes to support the arch will encourage proper muscle use. Practicing yoga can help to correct poor posture and teach you how to stand with your weight balanced evenly across the whole foot.

Surgical Treatment

The MBA implant is small titanium device that is inserted surgically into a small opening between the bones in the hind-mid foot: the talus (ankle bone) and the calcaneus (heel bone). The implant was developed to help restore the arch by acting as a mechanical block that prevents the foot from rolling-in (pronation). In the medical literature, the success rate for relief of pain is about 65-70%. Unfortunately, about 40% of people require surgical removal of the implant due to pain.
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